Why pay more attention to invasive fungal infection (IFI)?

Invasive fungal infection, or IFI for short, should be a concern to any health care provider who cares for critically ill patients. These diverse infections pose a serious threat to patients’ well-being, particularly those who are critically ill and/or immunosuppressed, and the number of IFIs has persisted over the past 2 decades, due in part to the widespread use of immunosuppressive therapies.1-4

This site provides an overview of these infections for the entire health care team, with a particular focus on team members who do not specialize in infectious diseases. Here you can also learn why appropriate stewardship of antifungal agents is so important, and explore ways to optimize transitions for patients moving from one care setting to another. Last but not least, My IFI provides you with resources that you can use to educate patients and their caregivers about these serious infections.

Click a heading below to find out more. 

Why It's Important

IFI is more common than you may think
IFI can have a profound impact on patients
Advances in IFI care align with quality improvement goals

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References

1. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(4):e1-e50. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=26679628

2. Patterson TF, Thompson GR 3rd, Denning DW, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of aspergillosis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(4):e1-e60.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=27365388

3. Bennett JE. Introduction to mycoses. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:2874-2878.

4. Kriengkauykiat J, Ito JI, Dadwal SS. Epidemiology and treatment approaches in management of invasive fungal infections. Clin Epidemiol. 2011;3:175-191. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21750627

5. Magill SS, Edwards JR, Bamberg W, et al. Multistate point-prevalence survey of health care-associated infections. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(13):1198-1208.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24670166

6. Garcia-Vidal C, Upton A, Kirby KA, Marr KA. Epidemiology of invasive mold infections in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: biological risk factors for infection according to time after transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(8):1041-1050. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=18781877

7. Menzin J, Meyers JL, Friedman M, et al. Mortality, length of hospitalization, and costs associated with invasive fungal infections in high-risk patients. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2009;66(19):1711-1717. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19767376

8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/. Accessed May 7, 2018. 
http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/

9. Kontoyiannis DP, Marr KA, Park BJ, et al. Prospective surveillance for invasive fungal infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, 2001-2006: overview of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) Database. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(8):1091-1100.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20218877

10. Pappas PG, Alexander BD, Andes DR, et al. Invasive fungal infections among organ transplant recipients: results of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET). Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(8):1101-1111.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20218876

11. Chang CC, Ananda-Rajah M, Belcastro A, et al. Consensus guidelines for implementation of quality processes to prevent invasive fungal disease and enhanced surveillance measures during hospital building works, 2014. Intern Med J. 2014;44(12b):1389-1397.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25482747

12. Kishel JJ, Sivik J. Breakthrough invasive fungal infection in an immunocompromised host while on posaconazole prophylaxis: an omission in patient counseling and follow-up. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2008;14(4):189-193.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=18753183

13. Hoenigl M, Duettmann W, Raggam RB, et al. Impact of structured personal on-site patient education on low posaconazole plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancies. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2014;44(2):140-144.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25059446

14. Institute for Healthcare Improvement. The IHI triple aim. http://www.ihi.org/engage/initiatives/tripleaim/pages/default.aspx. Accessed June 7, 2018.
http://www.ihi.org/engage/initiatives/tripleaim/pages/default.aspx

15. Joint Commission. 2018 Hospital National Patient Safety Goals. https://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/2018_HAP_NPSG_goals_final.pdf. Accessed January 18, 2018.
https://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/2018_HAP_NPSG_goals_final.pdf

16. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Eligible Hospital and Critical Access Hospital Medicaid EHR Incentive Program. Stage 3 Objectives and Measures. Table of Contents. Updated: August 2017. Accessed February 7, 2018.
https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/EHRIncentivePrograms/Downloads/TableofContents_EH_Medicaid_Stage3.pdf

17. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. HCAHPS: patients' perspectives of 
care survey (12-21-2017). https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Quality-Initiatives-Patient-Assessment-Instruments/HospitalQualityInits/HospitalHCAHPS.html. Accessed June 7, 2018.
https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Quality-Initiatives-Patient-Assessment-Instruments/HospitalQualityInits/HospitalHCAHPS.html.